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Simulation & Science Safety Research

Simulation is a technique – not a technology – to replace or amplify real experiences with guided experiences that evoke or replicate substantial aspects of the real word in a fully interactive manner (Gaba 2004). Serious games are designed for a purpose beyond pure entertainment and seek to help those playing the game confront real world challenges. Due to their ability to engage subjects in near real fully interactive experiences, simulation and serious gaming provide an excellent opportunity for researchers to study human performance and test new clinical processes in a controlled setting, without risk to actual patients.

The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) has identified simulation as a valued method to study concepts related to patient safety and quality. RFUMS faculty use simulation-based methodology to conduct research in a number of areas including human performance and behavior in healthcare settings, the use of simulation as a training and assessment tool, and interventions to improve patient safety, quality, and teamwork.

Sample peer reviewed publications and presentations:

  • Ronnebaum J, Carlson J. Does education in an evidence based teamwork system improve communication with emergency handoffs for physical therapy students. Journal of Acute Care Physical Therapy. Manuscript in press. 
  • Carlson J. Using web-based virtual patients to enhance case-based learning. MedSim. 2014 3(3) 20-23.
  • Carlson J. Does collaboration lead to fewer errors? Oral Presentation, Association of Allied Health Professions (ASAHP) Education Forum. October 2013.
  • Carlson J. Does collaboration lead to fewer errors? Oral Presentation, Physician Assistant Education Association (PAEA) Education Forum. October 2013.
  • Stevens K, Henderson H, Hawthorne K, Carlson J. A comparison of methods for setting passing scores in standardized simulated patient experiences in physical therapy education. JOPTE. October 2013.
  • Carlson J, Rheault W, Morrison J, Tomkowiak J. Does collaboration lead to fewer errors? Presentation, Chicago Clinical Skills Conference. August 2013
  • Carlson J, Rheault W, Morrison J, Tomkowiak J. Does collaboration lead to fewer errors? Presentation, AAMC Integrating Quality Meeting; Improving valuing and educating for quality. June 2013
  • Carlson J, Tomkowiak J. Transctive memory and group performance during interprofessional simulation-based team training. Presentation, AAMC Integrating Quality Meeting; Improving valuing and educating for quality. June 2013
  • Carlson J, Tomkowiak J. The influence of transactive memory on group performance during simulated healthcare team training events. Workshop Presentation, AMA Chicago Clinical Skills Consortium Conference, July 2012.
  • Carlson J. “Human patient simulation for physician assistants” in Human Simulation for Nursing and Health Professions.” Wilson, L & Rockstraw L. Springer Publishing Company. October, 2011.
  • Carlson J, Anzur T. The influence of a diagnostic reminder system on student performance during a clinical skills exercise. Presentation; 9th Annual Clinical Skills Education and Assessment – Chicago Style Conference. July 14, 2011.
  • Carlson J, Tomkowiak J. The influence of a diagnostic reminder system on clinical reasoning during simulated encounters. Presentation; AAMC Central Group of Education Affairs annual meeting. March 19, 2011.
  • Carlson J, Tomkowiak J. The influence of transactive memory on group performance during simulated healthcare team training events. Poster presentation, 2011 Team Based Learning Collaborative. March 2011, Las Vegas, NV.
  • Carlson J, Abel M, Bridges D, Tomkowiak J. The influence of a diagnostic reminder system on student clinical reasoning during simulated case studies. Simulation in Healthcare 2011, 6: 11-17.
  • Carlson J, Knott P, Tomkowiak J. Simulation based examinations in Physician Assistant Education. Journal of Physician Assistant Education. 2010; 21:2.
  • Carlson J, Eulenberg B, Anzur T, Bridges D, Tomkowiak J.  The influence of a clinical decision support system on diagnostic reasoning during simulated encounters. Simulation in Healthcare 2010, 5:185-186.
  • Carlson J, Eulenberg B, Anzur T, Bridges D, Tomkowiak J.  The influence of a clinical decision support system on diagnostic reasoning during simulated encounters. Winner: Outstanding Poster Presentation in Standardized Patient Research. 2010 Association of Standardized Patient Educators National Conference. June 2010, Baltimore, MD.
  • Tomkowiak J, Carlson J. Integration of a clinical decision support system to teach and assess diagnostic reasoning during simulated training scenarios. Presentation; Central Group of Education Affairs annual meeting. April 8, 2010.
  • Carlson J, Tomkowiak J. Integration of a Clinical Decision Support System to teach and Assess Diagnostic Reasoning During Simulated Training Scenarios. Workshop Presentation; 2010 International Meeting on Simulation in Healthcare. January 2010, Phoenix, AZ.
  • Carlson J, Tomkowiak J, Anzur T. Using the T.E.A.M. method to measure group communication and consensus during team simulation. Winner: Outstanding Poster Presentation in Educational Research. 2009 Association of Standardized Patient Educators National Conference. June 2009, Las Vegas, NV.
  • Carlson J, Tomkowiak J. Setting defensible cutoff scores for standardized patient performance evaluations in PA education. Research Presentation; 2009 Association of Standardized Patient Educators National Conference. June 2009, Las Vegas, NV.
  • Stevens K, Hawthorne K, Henderson H, Carlson J. Using the Angoff Method with Practicing Physical Therapists to Establish Passing Standards in Standardized Simulated Patient Experiences in Physical Therapy Education. Poster Presentation – American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) Conference. June 2009.
  • Carlson J, Tomkowiak J, Stilp C. Using the Angoff Method to set defensible passing levels for standardized patient performance evaluations in PA education. Journal of Physician Assistant Education 2009, 20(1):15-23.
  • Carlson J, Moss L, Vaidya N. Setting a passing standard for a psychiatry clerkship OSCE – A pilot study. Teaching and Learning in Medicine 2009; 21(2), 168-169.
  • Carlson J, Min E, Bridges D. The impact of leadership and team behavior on standard of care delivered during human patient simulation: a pilot study for undergraduate medical students. Teaching and Learning in Medicine 2009; 21(1) 24-32.
  • Stevens K, Hawthorne K, Henderson H, Carlson J. Using the Angoff Method with Practicing Physical Therapists to Establish Passing Standards in Standardized Simulated Patient Experiences in Physical Therapy Education. Accepted poster presentation – American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) Conference. June 2009.
  • Carlson J, Tomkowiak J, Anzur T. Using the T.E.A.M. (Targeted Elements Approach to Measurement) method to assess team communication and consensus during a simulated case of acute dyspnea. Simulation in Healthcare 2008; 3(4) 256-257. Abstract also presented at the 2009 International Meeting on Simulation in Healthcare; Jan 2009, Orlando FL.
  • Carlson J, Tomkowiak J, Park B, Shih J, Anzur T. Observe one, do one, learn both: Using A/V assisted peer review to demonstrate skill transferability in medical education. Simulation in Healthcare 2008; 3(4) 257. Abstract also presented at the 2009 International Meeting on Simulation in Healthcare; Jan 2009, Orlando FL.
  • Carlson J, Stilp C. Setting Defensible Passing Levels for Standardized Patient Performance Evaluations in Physician Assistant Education. Workshop Presentation; 2008 PAEA Educational Forum; October 2008, Savannah, GA.
  • Carlson J, Vaidya N, Moss N. “Applying the Borderline Group Method during a Psychiatric OSCE; a pilot study using standardized patients to determine global ratings.” Poster presentation: 2008 ADMSEP Conference, June 2008.
  • Carlson J, Anzur T. “Targeted measurement of team behavior during simulation: a comparison of assessment strategies.” Presentation; 6th Annual Clinical Skills Education and Assessment – Chicago Style Conference. July 18, 2008.
  • Cantrell M, Owens T, Anderson D, Gammon W, Gephardt G, Carlson J. “SP Methodology Nuts and Bolts.” Workshop Presentation; 2008 International Meeting on Medical Simulation, January 2008.
  • Carlson J, Stilp C. “Setting Defensible Passing Levels for Standardized Patient Performance Evaluations in Physician Assistant Education.” Workshop Presentation; 2008 PAEA Educational Forum, October 2007.
  • Carlson J. “Assessing leadership and team performance during a high fidelity simulation.” Presentation; 5th Annual clinical Skills Education and Assessment – Chicago Style Conference. July 12, 2007.
  • Carlson J. Min E. Bridges D. “Measuring leadership and team performance during high fidelity simulation training vignettes. Poster Presentation; 2006 Northwestern Conference on Medical Simulation, October 2006. 2007 International Meeting on Medical Simulation, January 2007.
  • Carlson J. “Integrating team training with a high fidelity simulator: an innovative way to incorporate high fidelity simulation into a clinical skills assessment center.” Presentation; 2006 ASPE Conference, August 2006.
  • Carlson J. Eulenberg B. “Writing case checklists that yield reliable data on student performance; Part 2.” Workshop; 2006 ASPE Conference, August 2006.
  • Carlson J. “Teaching and assessing student technical competence in a high fidelity simulation.” Poster Presentation; 2006 ASPE Conference, August 2006.
  • Carlson J. Stilp, C. “What primary care procedural skills are PA schools teaching and how are they teaching them?” Poster Presentation; 2006 AAPA Conference.
  • Carlson J. “Using SPs Trained as Practical Instructors (PIs) To Measure and Teach ET Tube Insertion and Suturing” Workshop/ Training Session; 2005 ASPE Conference, September 2005.
  • Carlson J. “How To Write Case Checklists That Yield Reliable Data on Student Performance. Checklist Writing For Beginning To Intermediate Level Case Writers.” Workshop Presentation; 2005 ASPE Conference, September 2005.
  • Carlson J; Apantaku, L; Eulenberg B. “Using Non – Faculty Practical Instructors To Measure and Teach Procedural Skill and Confidence During a Third Year Surgery Clerkship.” Poster Presentation; 2005 ASPE Conference, September 2005.
  • Carlson, J. “How to Write Standardized (Simulated) Patient Cases That Yield Reliable Student Data.” Workshop Presentation; 2004 APAP Education Forum, November 5th, 2004.
  • Siegel, L; Apantaku, L; Carlson, J, Eulenberg, B. “Podiatrists; Getting Their “Foot” in the Door of Standardized Patient Assessment.” Poster Presentation; 2004 ASPE Conference, September 2004.
  • Siegel, L; Apantaku, L; Carlson, J, Eulenberg, B. “Building Your Own Standardized Patient Center: The Dream VS The Reality.” Poster Presentation; 2004 ASPE Conference, September 2004 and 2004 AAMC Conference, November 2004.