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Bala Chandran, Ph.D.

Professor and Chair
Room 2.300
Phone (847) 578-8822
Building: BS
E-mail: bala.chandran@rosalindfranklin.edu

Dr. Chandran received his M.S. from Jawaharlal Institute of Post-Graduate Medical Education and Research in Pondicherry, India in 1974, and his Ph.D. degree on vaccinia virus immunobiology from All-India Institute of Medical Sciences in New Delhi, India in 1979. Dr. Chandran's postdoctoral experience includes positions at the Cancer Research Group at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada and the Department of Comparative and Experimental Pathology at the University of Florida in Gainesville. An award-winning teacher, Dr. Chandran was appointed Assistant Professor in the Department of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics and Immunology at the University of Kansas Medical Center in 1986, and then Professor in 1996. Dr. Chandran joined the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science on July 1, 2005 as Professor and Chair.


Molecular biology of the herpesviruses is under study to elucidate their mechanism of pathogenesis. Kaposi's sarcoma associated human herpesvirus (KSHV) or HHV-8 is implicated in the etiology of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease. KSHV genome encodes  several unique proteins that regulate cell cycle, signaling, angiogenesis and innate and adaptive immune responses. The molecular events in KSHV infection of target cells are under study to understand how KSHV manipulates the host cell for a successful infection. Studies in progress include: a) Defining the cell surface molecules recognized by KSHV and the role of viral envelope glycoproteins in the cell surface receptor interactions; B) Signaling pathways induced by KSHV during infection and their role in infection; C) Viral and host cell gene expression and d) Interaction of  KSHV with innate immune response components. These studies provide unique opportunity of utilizing cutting edge molecular and cell biological techniques to examine viral oncogenesis by integrating cell surface receptors, signaling molecules, cellular processes, cell cycle regulatory molecules, transcription factors, innate immune responses and angiogenic factors. A thorough understanding of KSHV pathogenesis from these studies will lead to novel methods to control KSHV infection. Dr. Chandran's research has been continuously funded by NIH from 1986. He is a member of the Editorial boards of the Journal of Virology. He has served and serving as a member in NIH, MRC (UK) and other grant review panels.

Recent Publications (From a total of 155 publications)


Gjyshi O, Flaherty S, Veettil MV, Johnson KE, Chandran B, Bottero V. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Induces Nrf2 Activation in Latently-Infected Endothelial Cells Through SQSTM1 Phosphorylation and Interaction with Polyubiquitinated Keap1.  J Virol. 2015 Feb;89(4):2268-86.doi: 10.1128/JVI.02742-14. Epub 2014 Dec 10.  

Radhakrishnan J, Bazarek S, Chandran B, Gazmuri RJ. Cyclophilin-D: A Resident Regulator of Mitochondrial Gene Expression. FASEB J. 2015 Jul;29(7):2734-48. doi: 10.1096/fj.14-263855. Epub 2015 Apr 2. 

Gjyshi O and Chandran B. Manipulating Host Signaling for Pathogenic Purposes: Hijacking of the Transcriptional Activity of the Host Protein Nrf2  by Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus. Science Proceedings .  Feb 2015

Vahedi S, Chueh FY, Dutta S, Chandran B, Yu CL.  Nuclear lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase and its interaction with CR6-interacting factor 1 promote the survival of human leukemic T cells. Oncol Rep. 2015 Jul;34(1):43-50. doi: 10.3892/or.2015.3990. Epub 2015 May 19. 

Gjyshi O, Roy A, Dutta S, Veettil MV, Dutta D, Chandran B.  Activated Nrf2 Interacts with Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Latency Protein LANA-1 and Host Protein KAP1 to Mediate Global Lytic Gene Repression.  J Virol. 2015 Aug 1;89(15):7874-92. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00895-15. Epub 2015 May 20.
Lo Cigno I, De Andrea M, Borgogna C, Albertini S, Landini MM, Peretti A, Johnson KE, Chandran B, Landolfo S, Gariglio M.  The Nuclear DNA Sensor IFI16 Acts as a Restriction Factor for Human Papillomavirus  Replication through Epigenetic Modifications of the Viral Promoters. J Virol. 2015 Aug 1;89(15):7506-20. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00013-15. Epub 2015 May 13. 

Dutta D, Dutta S, Veettil MV, Roy A, Ansari MA, Iqbal J, Chikoti L, Kumar B, Johnson KE, Chandran B.   BRCA1 Regulates IFI16 Mediated Nuclear Innate Sensing of Herpes Viral DNA and Subsequent Induction of the Innate Inflammasome and Interferon-β Responses. PLoS Pathog. 2015 Jun  29;11(6):e1005030. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005030. eCollection 2015  Jun. 

Ansari MA, Dutta S, Veettil MV, Dutta D, Iqbal J, Kumar B, Roy A, Chikoti L, Singh VV, Chandran B. Herpesvirus Genome Recognition Induced Acetylation of Nuclear IFI16 Is Essential for Its Cytoplasmic Translocation, Inflammasome and IFN-β Responses. PLoS Pathog. 2015 Jul  ;11(7):e1005019. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005019. eCollection 2015 Jul.

Vahedi, S Chueh FY,  Chandran B and Yu CL. Lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) interacts with CR6-interacting factor 1 (CRIF1) in mitochondria to repress oxidative phosphorylation.   BMC Cancer. 2015 Jul 26;15:551. doi: 10.1186/s12885-015-1520-6.

Dutta D, Ansari MA and Chandran B. BRCA1-regulated nuclear innate sensing of  Herpesviral genome by IFI16 and IFI16’s acetylation is critical for its cytoplasmic trafficking and induction of innate responses. Invited  Research Highlights Review. Inflammation and Cell Signaling.   2: e1076. doi: 10.14800/ics.1076; Nov 23, 2015.


Dutta S,  Bandyopadhyay C,  Bottero V,  Veettil MV, Wilson L,  Pins  MR,  Johnson KE,  Warshall C and  Chandran B. Angiogenin interacts with the plasminogen activation system at the cell surface of breast cancer cells to regulate plasmin formation and cell migration. Mol Oncol. 2014 Jan 4. pii: S1574-7891(13)00189-0.  

Bandyopadhyay C, Valiya-Veettil M, Dutta D, Chakraborty S, Chandran B. CIB1 synergizes with EphrinA2 to regulate Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus  macropinocytic entry in human microvascular dermal endothelial cells. PLoS Pathog. 2014 Feb 13;10(2):e1003941. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003941.  

Singh V, Dutta D, Ansari MA, Dutta S and Chandran B. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus induces ATM and H2AX DNA DamageResponse early during de novo infection of primary endothelial cells which play roles in latency establishment. J Virol. 2014  Mar;88(5):2821-34. 

Dutta S, Warshall C, Bandyopadhyay C, Dutta D, and   Chandran B. Interactions between exosomes from breast  cancer cells and primary mammary epithelial cells leads to generation of reactive oxygen species, induction of DNA damage response, activation of p53 and autophagy in epithelial  cells. PLoS One   May 2014 e97580.

Valiya Veettil M, Bottero V, Dutta D, Bandyopadhyay C, Gjyishi O, Shrama-Walia N, Dutta S, and Chandran B. Glutamate  secretion and mGluR1 expression during Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus infection promotes cell proliferation. PLoS Pathog. 2014 Oct 9;10(10):e1004389. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004389. eCollection 2014 Oct.

Gjyshi  O,  Bottero V,   Valliya Veettil M,  Dutta S, Singh VV,  Chikoti L and  Chandran B. Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Induces Nrf2 During De Novo Infection of Endothelial Cells to Create a Microenvironment Conducive to Infection.  PLoS Pathog. 2014 Oct 23;10(10):e1004460. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004460. eCollection 2014.

Bandyopadhyay C,  Valliya Veettil M,   Dutta S, and  Chandran. B. p130Cas Scaffolds the Signalosome to Direct Adaptor-Effector Crosstalk During Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus  Trafficking in Human Microvascular Dermal Endothelial Cells.  J. Virol. 2014, 88(23):13858. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01674-14.  

Valiya Veettil M, Bandyopadhyay C, Dutta D, and Chandran B. Interaction of KSHV with Host Cell Surface Receptors and Cell Entry. Viruses. 2014 Oct 23;6(10):4024-4046. Review.

Johnson KE,  Bottero V,  Flaherty S, Singh VV, and  Chandran B. IFI16 Restricts HSV-1 Replication by Accumulating on the HSV-1   Genome,    Repressing HSV-1 Gene Expression, and Directly or   Indirectly Modulating Histone Modifications.  PLoS Pathog. 2014  Nov 6;10(11):e1004503. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004503. eCollection 2014 Nov.


Bottero V, Chakraborty S, Chandran BReactive oxygen species are induced by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus early during primary infection of endothelial cells to promote virus entry.  J Virol. 2013 Feb;87(3):1733-49.

Singh VV, Kerur N, Bottero V, Dutta S, Chakraborty S, Ansari MA, Paudel N, Chikoti L, Chandran BKaposi's sarcoma-associatedherpesvirus latency in endothelial and B cells activates gamma interferon-inducible protein 16-mediated inflammasomes. J Virol. 2013 Apr;87(8):4417-31.

Johnson KE, Chikoti L, Chandran B.  Herpes simplex virus 1 infection induces activation and subsequent inhibition of the IFI16 and NLRP3 inflammasomes.    J Virol.2013 May;87(9):5005-18.

Paul AG, Chandran B,Sharma-Walia N.   Concurrent targeting of eicosanoid receptor 1/eicosanoid receptor 4 receptors and COX-2 induces synergisticapoptosis in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and Epstein-Barr virus associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines.   Transl Res. 2013 Jun;161(6):447-68.

Ye FC, Zhou FC, Nithianantham S, Chandran B, Yu XL, Weinberg A, Gao SJ. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Induces Rapid Release of Angiopoietin-2 from Endothelial Cells.  J Virol. 2013 Jun;87(11):6326-35.

Paul AG, Chandran B,Sharma-Walia N.  Cyclooxygenase-2-prostaglandinE2-eicosanoid receptor inflammatory axis: a key player in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus associated malignancies. Transl Res.2013 Apr 6. doi:pii: S1931-5244(13)00077-7.

Ansari MA, Singh VV, Dutta S, ValiyaVeettil M, Dutta D, Chikoti L, Lu J, Everly D, Chandran B.  Constitutive Interferon-Inducible Protein 16-Inflammasome Activation During Epstein-Barr Virus Latency I, II and III in B and Epithelial Cells. J Virol. 2013 Aug;87(15):8606-23.

Dutta D, Chakraborty S, Bandyopadhyay C, Valiya Veettil M, Ansari MA, Singh VV, and  Chandran B.  EphrinA2 regulates clathrin mediated KSHV endocytosis in fibroblast cells by coordinating integrin-associated signaling and c-Cbl directed polyubiquitination.   Plos Pathogens 2013.  Jul;9(7):e1003510.

Bottero V, Sadagopan S, Johnson KE, Dutta S, Veettil MV, Chandran B.   Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus positive primary effusion lymphoma tumor formation in NOD/SCID mice is inhibited by neomycin and neamine blocking angiogenin's nuclear translocation. J Virol. 2013 Nov;87(21):11806-20.


Paudel N, Sadagopan S, Balasubramanian S, Chandran B.  Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latency associated nuclear antigen (LANA-1) and angiogenin interact with  common host proteins including annexin A2 that is essential for the survival of latently infected cells. J Virol. 2012  86(3):15892011.    

Sadagopan S, Veettil MV, Chakraborty S, Sharma-Walia N, Paudel N, Bottero V, Chandran B.Angiogenin functionally interacts with p53 and regulates p53 mediated apoptosis and cell survival.  Oncogene (2012) 1–13. Jan 23. doi:10.1038/onc.2011.648.      

Chakraborty S, ValiyaVeettil M, and Chandran, B. Kaposi's sarcoma- associated herpesvirus entry into target  cells.  Frontiers in Microbiology  2012.  Doi:10.3388/fmicb.2012.00006.    

Chakraborty S, ValiyaVeettil M, Bottero  V and Chandran, B.  Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus interacts with endothelial cell receptor to amplify signaling essential for productive entry and infection.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 May 8;109(19):E1163-72. Epub 2012 Apr 16.    

Paudel N, Sadagopan S,  Chakraborty S, Sarek G,Ojala PM and Chandran B. Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus latency associated nuclear antigen interacts with multifunctional angiogenin to utilize its anti-apoptotic functions. J of Virology.  2012. Jun;86(11):5974-91. Epub 2012 Mar 21 2012.   

Deboeeta Chatterjee D, Chandran B, and Berger EA. Selective killing of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytically infected cells with a recombinant immunotoxin targeting the viral gpK8.1A envelope glycoprotein.  MAbs. 2012 Mar 1;4(2). 


Bottero, V., N. Kerur, S. Sadagopan, K. Patel, N.Sharma-Walia, and B.Chandran. Phosphorylation and polyubiquitination of TAK1 are necessary for activation of NF-kB by Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus G protein coupled receptor. J Virol. 2011 Mar;85(5):1980-93.

Sadagopan S, M. Valiya Veettil, N. Paudel, V. Bottero and B. ChandranKaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) induced angiogenin plays roles in latency via PLC {gamma} pathway and blocking angiogenin inhibits latent gene expression and induces the lytic cycle. J Virol. 2011 Mar;85(6):2666-85.

Kerur N, ValiyaVeettil M, Sharma-Walia N, Bottero V and Chandran B. IFI16 acts as a nuclear pathogen sensor and induces the inflammasome during Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus infection. Cell Host and Microbe. 2011.May 19;9(5):363-75.

George Paul A, Sharma-Walia N, Chandran B. Targeting KSHV/HHV-8 latency with COX-2 selective inhibitor Nimesulide: a potential chemotherapeutic modality for primary effusion lymphoma. PLoS ONE 2011 6(9): e24379. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024379.

Chakraborty S, ValiyaVeettil M, Sadagopan S, Paudel P and Chandran B. c-cbl mediated selective virus-receptor translocations in lipid rafts regulate productive Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection in endothelial cells. J of Virology. 2011 Dec;85(23):12410-30.

Everly D, Sharma-Walia N, Sadagopan S and Chandran B. Herpesviruses and Cancer (Editor; E. Roberstson; Springer Sciences Business Media) December 2011.


Sharma-Walia N, Paul AG, Bottero V, Sadagopan S, Veettil M, Kerur N, Chandran B, Kaposi's Sarcoma Associated Herpes Virus (KSHV) Induced COX-2: A Key Factor in Latency, Inflammation, Angiogenesis, Cell Survival and Invasion. PLoS Pathogens, February 2010, Vol. 6, Issue 2, P. e1000777.

Chandran B. MINIREVIEW. Early Events in Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Infection of Target Cells. Journal of Virology, March 2010, Vol. 84: No. 5, P. 2188-2199.

Paul AG, Sharma-Walia N, Kerur N, White C and Chandran B. Piracy of PGE2/EP receptor mediated signaling by Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpes virus (KSHV/HHV-8) for latency gene expression: Strategy of a successful pathogen. Cancer Research. 70(9) May1, 2010, 3697-3708.

Nagaraj Kerur, Mohanan Valiya Veettil, Neelam Sharma-Walia, Sathish Sadagopan, Virginie Bottero, Arun George Paul, Bala Chandran. Characterization of entry and infection of monocytic THP-1 cells by Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus(KSHV): Role of heparan sulfate, DC-SIGN, integrins and signaling. Virology 406: 103-116. Sept. 2010

Sharma-Walia N, George Paul A, Patel K, Chandran K, Ahmad W, Chandran B. NFAT and CREB Regulate Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus-Induced Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). J of Virology. 2010 Dec;84(24):12733-53.

Valiya Veettil, M., S. Sadagopan, N. Kerur, S. Chakraborty and B.Chandran. Interaction of c-Cbl with myosin IIA regulates bleb associated macropinocytosis of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. PLos Pathogens2010 Dec23:6(12)e1001238.


Chandran B. and Sharma-Walia, N. KSHV entry and infection of target cells. Chapter 23, 583-609. In DNA tumor viruses. B. Damania and J.M. Pipas (eds) (Springer Sciences + Business Media).

Sadagopan, S., Sharma-Walia, N., Valiaya Veettil, M., Bottero, V., Levine, R., Vart, R.J., and Chandran B. Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpes virus (KSHV/HHV-8) upregulates angiogenin during infection of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells which induces 45SrRNA synthesis, anti-apoptosis, cell proliferation, migration and angiogenesis. J Virology, April 2009. 83 (7) 3342-3364.

Picture shown in the cover of April 2009 Vol 83 No 8 issue of J. Virology is from the above manuscript.

Raghu, H., Sharma-Walia, N., Valiya Veettil, M., Sadagopan, S., Chandran, B. Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) utilizes actin polymerization dependent macropinocytic pathway to enter human dermal microvascular endothelial (HMVEC-d) and human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVEC) cells. J Virology, May 2009. 83 (10) 4895-4911.

Bottero V, Sharma-Walia N, Kerur N, Paul AG, Sadagopan S, Cannon M and Chandran B. Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) G protein-coupled receptor (vGPCR) activates the ORF50 lytic switch promoter: A potential positive feedback loop for sustained ORF50 gene expression. Virology, September 2009, 392:34-51.


Ramu S., Sharma-Walia N., Raghu H., Veettil M.V., Sadagopan S., Bottero V., Varga L., Levine R., and Chandran B. Kaposi’s Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus induces sustained levels of vascular endothelial growth factors A and C early during in vitro infection of human microvascular dermal endothelial cells: Biological Implications. J. Virology, February 2008. 82:1759–1776.

Mohanan Valiya Veettil, Sathish Sadagopan, Neelam Sharma-Walia, Fu-Zhang Wang, Hari Raghu, Laszlo Varga, and Bala Chandran. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8) forms a multi-molecular complex of integrins (αVβ5, αVβ3 and α3β1) and CD98-xCT during infection of human dermal microvascular endothelial (HMVEC-d) cells and CD98-xCT is essential for post-entry stage of infection. J. Virology, December 2008. 82: 12126-12144.

Nadine Jarousse, Bala Chandran and Laurent Coscoy. Lack of heparan sulfate expression on B cell lines: implications for KSHV and MHV68 infection. J. Virology, December 2008. 82: 12591-12597.


Chandran B. and Hutt-Fletcher L.M. Chap 23 Gammaherpesviruses entry and early events during infection. In Human herpesviruses: Biology, Therapy and Immunoprophylaxis (Cambridge University Press). 2007.

Sadagopan S., Sharma-Walia N., Veettil M.V., Raghu H., Ramu S. and Chandran B. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV/HHV-8) induces a sustained NF- k B activation during de novo infection of primary human dermal microvascular endothelial cells that is essential for viral gene expression. J. Virology, 2007. 81(8):3949-3968.

Cao ZLiu LZDixon DAZheng JZChandran B, and Jiang BH. Insulin-like growth factor-1 induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression via PI3K, MAPK and PKC signaling pathways in human ovarian cancer cells. Cell Signal 2007. 19(7):1542-1553. 

Raghu H., Sharma-Walia N., Valiya V.M., Sadagopan S., Caballero A., Sivakumar R., Varga L., Bottero V., and Chandran B. Lipid rafts of primary endothelial cells are essential for Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8) induced PI3-K and RhoA-GTPases critical for microtubule dynamics and nuclear delivery of viral DNA but dispensable for binding and entry. J. Virology, August 2007. 81:7941-7959.


Krishnan, H.H., Sharma-Walia N., Streblow D.N., Naranatt P.P. and Chandran B. "Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is Critical for Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8) Entry into the Target Cells," J. Virology, 80(3):1167-1180, 2006.

Sharma-Walia N., Raghu H., Sadagopan S., Ramu S., Veettil M.V., Naranatt P.P., Smith M.M. and Chandran B. "Cyclooxygenase 2 Induced by Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Early during In Vitro Infection of Target Cells Plays a Role in the Maintenance of Latent Viral Gene Expression," J. Virology,80 (13):6534-6552, 2006.

Veettil M.V., Sharma-Walia N., Sadagopan S., Raghu H., Ramu S., Naranatt P.P. and Chandran B. "RHoA-GTPase Facilitates Entry of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus into Adherent Target Cells in a Src-Dependent Manner," J. Virology, 80(23):11432-11446, 2006.


Naranatt P.P., Krishnan H.H., Smith M.S. and Chandran B. "Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8) modulates the microtubule dynamics via RhoA-GTP-Diaphenous-2 signaling and utilizes the dynein motors to deliver its DNA to the nucleus," J. Virology, 79:1191-1206, 2005.

Zhang X., Feng-Wang J., Chandran B., Persaud K., Pytowski B., Fingeroth J. and Groopman J.E.. "KSHV activation of VEGFR-3 alters endothelial function and enhances infection," J. Biol. Chem., 280(28):26216-26224, 2005.

Sharma-Walia N., Krishnan H.H., Naranatt P.P. and Chandran B. "KSHV/HHV-8 envelope glycoprotein gpK8.1A induced ERK early during infection is essential for the latent and lytic gene expression and for the establishment of latent infection," J. Virology, 79(16):10308-10329, 2005.

Krishnan, H.H., Sharma-Walia N., Zeng L., Smith M.S. and Chandran B. "Envelope glycoprotein gB of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is essential for egress from infected cells," J. Virology, 79:10952-10967.

Updated: 07.23.2015