William N. Frost, Ph.D.

Professor and Chairman
Chicago Medical School
Office: 3.217B
Building: BSB
Phone: 847.578.8634
Fax: 847.578.3253

Frost, W.N., Castellucci, V.F., Hawkins, R.D., and Kandel, E.R. Monosynaptic connections made by the sensory neurons of the gill- and siphon-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia participate in the storage of long-term memory for sensitization. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA, 82:8266-8269, 1985.

Castellucci, V.F., Frost, W.N., Goelet, P., Montarolo, P.G., Schacher, S., Morgan, J., Blumenfeld, H., and Kandel, E.R. Cell and molecular analysis of long-term sensitization in Aplysia. J. Physiol., Paris. (Gif Lect. in Neurobiol.) 81:349-357, 1986.

Frost, W.N., Clark, G.A. and Kandel, E.R. Parallel processing of short-term memory for sensitization in Aplysia. J. Neurobiol. 19:297-334, 1988.

Frost, W.N. Invertebrate learning: Habituation and sensitization in Tritonia. In: The Encyclopedia of Learning and Memory, Squire, L.R. ed., Macmillan Publ. Co. New York. 1992, pp. 305-307.

Clark, G.A., Hawkins, R.D. and Frost, W.N. How neural are neural networks? A comparison of information processing and storage in artificial and real neural systems. J. Statistical Planning and Inference. 33:27-65, 1992.

Katz, P.S., Getting, P.A. and Frost, W.N. Dynamic neuromodulation of synaptic strength intrinsic to a central pattern generator circuit. Nature. 367:729-731, 1994.

Frost, W.N. and Kandel, E.R. Structure of the network mediating siphon-elicited siphon withdrawal in Aplysia. J. Neurophysiol., 73:2413-2427, 1995.

Katz, P.S. and Frost, W.N. Intrinsic neuromodulation in the Tritonia swim CPG: The serotonergic dorsal swim interneurons act presynaptically to enhance transmitter release from interneuron C2. J. Neurosci., 15:6035-6045, 1995.

Noel, F., Frost, W.N., Tian, L.-M., Colicos, M.A. and Dash, P.K. Recovery of tail-elicited siphon-withdrawal reflex following unilateral axonal injury is associated with ipsi- and contralateral changes in gene expression in Aplysia californica. J. Neurosci., 15:6926-6938, 1995.

Cleary, L.J., Byrne, J.H. and Frost, W.N. Role of interneurons in defensive withdrawal reflexes in Aplysia. Learning and Memory, 2:133-151, 1995.

Katz, P.S. and Frost, W.N. Intrinsic neuromodulation in the Tritonia swim CPG: Serotonin mediates both neuromodulation and neurotransmission by the dorsal swim interneurons. J. Neurophysiol., 74:2281-2294, 1995.

Frost, W.N. and Katz, P.S. Single neuron control over a complex motor program. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA, 93-422-426, 1996.

Katz, P.S. and Frost, W.N. Intrinsic neuromodulation: Altering neuronal circuits from within. Trends in Neurosci., 19:54-61, 1996.

Frost, W.N. Brown, G. and Getting, P.A. Parametric features of habituation of swim cycle number in the marine mollusc Tritonia diomedea. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory., 65: 125-134, 1996.

Brown, G., Frost, W.N. and Getting, P.A. Habituation and iterative potentiation of multiple components of the Tritonia swim response. Behav. Neurosci., 110:478-485, 1996.

Lieb, J.R., Jr. and Frost, W.N. Realistic simulation of the Aplysia siphon-withdrawal reflex circuit: Roles of circuit elements in producing motor output. J. Neurophysiol., 77:1249-1268, 1997.

Frost, W.N., Lieb, J.R., Tunstall, M.J., Mensh, B. and Katz, P.S. Integrate-and-fire simulations of two molluscan neural circuits. In: Neurons, networks and motor behavior, Stein, P. ed., MIT Press. Cambridge. pp. 173-179, 1997.

Katz, P.S. and Frost, W.N. Removal of spike frequency adaptation via neuromodulation intrinsic to the Tritonia escape swim central pattern generator. J. Neurosci., 17:7703-7713, 1997.

Frost, W.N., Brandon, C.L. and Mongeluzi, D.L. Sensitization of the Tritonia escape swim. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 69:126-135, 1998.

Mongeluzi, D.L., Hoppe, T.A. and Frost, W.N. Prepulse inhibition of the Tritonia escape swim. J. Neurosci., 18:8467-8472, 1998.

Mongeluzi, D.L. and Frost, W.N.  Dishabituation of the Tritonia escape swim.  Learning and Memory, 7: 43-47, 2000.

Frost, W.N., Hoppe, T.A., Wang, J., and Tian, L.- M.  Swim initiation neurons in Tritonia diomedea.  Am. Zool.  41:952-961, 2001.

Popescu, I.R. and Frost, W.N. Highly dissimilar behaviors mediated by a multifunctional network in the marine mollusc Tritonia diomedea. J. Neurosci., 22:1985-1993, 2002.

Wang, J. and Frost, W.N.  Coexistence of multiple memories in the Tritonia swim circuit.  Soc. Neurosci. Abstr.  28: 186.2, 2002.

Frost, W.N. and Wang, J.  A memory sustained by the tonic firing of neuromodulatory neurons.  Soc. Neurosci. Abstr.  29: 291.21, 2003.

Lee, A.H., Wang, J. and Frost, W.N.  Action potential conduction block as a mechanism mediating prepulse inhibition.  Soc. Neurosci. Abstr.  29: 315.5, 2003.

Frost, W.N., Tian, L.-M., Hoppe, T.A., Mongeluzi, D.L., and Wang, J. A cellular mechanism for prepulse inhibition. Neuron., 40:991-1001, 2003.

Frost, W.N., Brandon, C.L., and Van Zyl, C. Long term habituation in the marine mollusc Tritonia diomedea. Biological Bulletin, 210:230-237, 2006.

Frost, W.N. Memory traces: Snails reveal a novel storage mechanism. Current Biology, 16:R640-641, 2006.

Frost, W.N., Wang, J., and Brandon, C.J. A stereo-compound hybrid microscope for combined intracellular and optical recording of invertebrate neural network activity. Journal of Neuroscience Methods. 162:148-154, 2007.

Calin-Jageman, R., Tunstall, M., Mensh, B., Katz, P.S., and Frost, W.N.  Parameter space analysis suggests multi-site plasticity contributes to motor pattern initiation in Tritonia.  J. Neurophysiol.  98:2382-2398, 2007.

Frost, W.N. and Megalou, E.V.  Learning and Memory in Invertebrate Models: Tritonia. In: Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, Edited by Squire L., Elsevier, 401-404, 2009.

Megalou, E.V., Brandon, C.J. and Frost, W.N.  Evidence that the Tritonia diomedea swim afferent neurons are glutamatergic.  Biological Bulletin, 216: 103-112, 2009.

Hill, E.S., Moore-Kochlacs, C., Vasireddi, S.K., Sejnowski, T.J. and Frost, W.N.  Validation of Independent Component Analysis for rapid spike sorting of optical recording data.  J. Neurophysiology, 104:3721-3731, 2010.

Frost, W.N., Wang, J., Brandon, C.J., Moore-Kochlacs, C., Sejnowski, T.J. and Hill, E.S.  Use of fast-responding voltage-sensitive dyes for large-scale recording of neuronal spiking activity with single-cell resolution.  In: Membrane Potential Imaging in the Nervous System: Methods and Applications, Mario Canepari and Dejan Zecevic, Eds., Springer Press, 53-60, 2010.

Frost, W.N.  David W. McCandless (1941-2011): A personal tribute.  Metab. Brain Dis.  26:157, 2011.

Hill, E.S., Vasireddi, S.K., Bruno, A.M., Wang, J. and Frost, W.N.  Variable neuronal participation in stereotypic motor programs.  PloS One, 7(7): 1-11, e40579.  Epub 2012 Jul 16.

Hill, E.S., Bruno, A.M., Vasireddi, S.K. and Frost, W.N.  ICA applied to VSD imaging of invertebrate neuronal networks.  In: Independent Component Analysis for Audio and Biosignal applications.  Ganesh Naik, Ed., InTech.  Chap. 12, pp. 235-246, 2012. 

Lee, A.H., Megalou, E., Wang, J. and Frost, W.N.  Axonal conduction block as a novel mechanism of prepulse inhibition.  J. Neurosci., 32(44): 15262-15270, 2012.

Hill, E.S., Bruno, A.M. and Frost. W.N.  Recent developments in VSD imaging of small neuronal networks.  Learning and Memory.  21 (10): 499-505, 2014.

Frost, W.N. and Wu, J.-Y.  Voltage-sensitive dye imaging.  In: Basic Electrophysiological Methods,  E. Covey and M. Carter, Eds.  Oxford University Press. New York.  In Press.

Frost, W.N., Brandon, C.J., Bruno, A.M.., Humphries, M.D., Moore-Kochlacs, C., Sejnowski, T.J., Wang, J. and Hill, E.S.  Monitoring spiking activity of many individual neurons in invertebrate ganglia.  In: Membrane Potential Imaging in the Nervous System and Heart. Mario Canepari, Dejan Zecevic and Olivier Bernus, Eds.  Springer.  In Press.

Bruno, A.M., Frost, W.N. and Humphries, M.D.  Modular deconstruction reveals the dynamical and physical building blocks of a locomotion motor program. Neuron.  In Press.

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