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William N. Frost, Ph.D.

Professor and Chairman
Chicago Medical School
Office: 3.217B
Building: BSB
Phone: 847.578.8634
Fax: 847.578.3253

Frost, W.N., Castellucci, V.F., Hawkins, R.D., and Kandel, E.R. Monosynaptic connections made by the sensory neurons of the gill- and siphon-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia participate in the storage of long-term memory for sensitization. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA, 82:8266-8269, 1985.

Castellucci, V.F., Frost, W.N., Goelet, P., Montarolo, P.G., Schacher, S., Morgan, J., Blumenfeld, H., and Kandel, E.R. Cell and molecular analysis of long-term sensitization in Aplysia. J. Physiol., Paris. (Gif Lect. in Neurobiol.) 81:349-357, 1986.

Frost, W.N., Clark, G.A. and Kandel, E.R. Parallel processing of short-term memory for sensitization in Aplysia. J. Neurobiol. 19:297-334, 1988.

Frost, W.N. Invertebrate learning: Habituation and sensitization in Tritonia. In: The Encyclopedia of Learning and Memory, Squire, L.R. ed., Macmillan Publ. Co. New York. 1992, pp. 305-307.

Clark, G.A., Hawkins, R.D. and Frost, W.N. How neural are neural networks? A comparison of information processing and storage in artificial and real neural systems. J. Statistical Planning and Inference. 33:27-65, 1992.

Katz, P.S., Getting, P.A. and Frost, W.N. Dynamic neuromodulation of synaptic strength intrinsic to a central pattern generator circuit. Nature. 367:729-731, 1994.

Frost, W.N. and Kandel, E.R. Structure of the network mediating siphon-elicited siphon withdrawal in Aplysia. J. Neurophysiol., 73:2413-2427, 1995.

Katz, P.S. and Frost, W.N. Intrinsic neuromodulation in the Tritonia swim CPG: The serotonergic dorsal swim interneurons act presynaptically to enhance transmitter release from interneuron C2. J. Neurosci., 15:6035-6045, 1995.

Noel, F., Frost, W.N., Tian, L.-M., Colicos, M.A. and Dash, P.K. Recovery of tail-elicited siphon-withdrawal reflex following unilateral axonal injury is associated with ipsi- and contralateral changes in gene expression in Aplysia californica. J. Neurosci., 15:6926-6938, 1995.

Cleary, L.J., Byrne, J.H. and Frost, W.N. Role of interneurons in defensive withdrawal reflexes in Aplysia. Learning and Memory, 2:133-151, 1995.

Katz, P.S. and Frost, W.N. Intrinsic neuromodulation in the Tritonia swim CPG: Serotonin mediates both neuromodulation and neurotransmission by the dorsal swim interneurons. J. Neurophysiol., 74:2281-2294, 1995.

Frost, W.N. and Katz, P.S. Single neuron control over a complex motor program. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA, 93-422-426, 1996.

Katz, P.S. and Frost, W.N. Intrinsic neuromodulation: Altering neuronal circuits from within. Trends in Neurosci., 19:54-61, 1996.

Frost, W.N. Brown, G. and Getting, P.A. Parametric features of habituation of swim cycle number in the marine mollusc Tritonia diomedea. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory., 65: 125-134, 1996.

Brown, G., Frost, W.N. and Getting, P.A. Habituation and iterative potentiation of multiple components of the Tritonia swim response. Behav. Neurosci., 110:478-485, 1996.

Lieb, J.R., Jr. and Frost, W.N. Realistic simulation of the Aplysia siphon-withdrawal reflex circuit: Roles of circuit elements in producing motor output. J. Neurophysiol., 77:1249-1268, 1997.

Frost, W.N., Lieb, J.R., Tunstall, M.J., Mensh, B. and Katz, P.S. Integrate-and-fire simulations of two molluscan neural circuits. In: Neurons, networks and motor behavior, Stein, P. ed., MIT Press. Cambridge. pp. 173-179, 1997.

Katz, P.S. and Frost, W.N. Removal of spike frequency adaptation via neuromodulation intrinsic to the Tritonia escape swim central pattern generator. J. Neurosci., 17:7703-7713, 1997.

Frost, W.N., Brandon, C.L. and Mongeluzi, D.L. Sensitization of the Tritonia escape swim. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 69:126-135, 1998.

Mongeluzi, D.L., Hoppe, T.A. and Frost, W.N. Prepulse inhibition of the Tritonia escape swim. J. Neurosci., 18:8467-8472, 1998.

Mongeluzi, D.L. and Frost, W.N.  Dishabituation of the Tritonia escape swim.  Learning and Memory, 7: 43-47, 2000.

Frost, W.N., Hoppe, T.A., Wang, J., and Tian, L.- M.  Swim initiation neurons in Tritonia diomedea.  Am. Zool.  41:952-961, 2001.

Popescu, I.R. and Frost, W.N. Highly dissimilar behaviors mediated by a multifunctional network in the marine mollusc Tritonia diomedea. J. Neurosci., 22:1985-1993, 2002.

Frost, W.N., Tian, L.-M., Hoppe, T.A., Mongeluzi, D.L., and Wang, J. A cellular mechanism for prepulse inhibition. Neuron., 40:991-1001, 2003.

Frost, W.N., Brandon, C.L., and Van Zyl, C. Long term habituation in the marine mollusc Tritonia diomedea. Biological Bulletin, 210:230-237, 2006.

Frost, W.N. Memory traces: Snails reveal a novel storage mechanism. Current Biology, 16:R640-641, 2006.

Frost, W.N., Wang, J., and Brandon, C.J. A stereo-compound hybrid microscope for combined intracellular and optical recording of invertebrate neural network activity. Journal of Neuroscience Methods. 162:148-154, 2007.

Calin-Jageman, R., Tunstall, M., Mensh, B., Katz, P.S., and Frost, W.N.  Parameter space analysis suggests multi-site plasticity contributes to motor pattern initiation in Tritonia.  J. Neurophysiol.  98:2382-2398, 2007.

Frost, W.N. and Megalou, E.V.  Learning and Memory in Invertebrate Models: Tritonia. In: Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, Edited by Squire L., Elsevier, 401-404, 2009.

Megalou, E.V., Brandon, C.J. and Frost, W.N.  Evidence that the Tritonia diomedea swim afferent neurons are glutamatergic.  Biological Bulletin, 216: 103-112, 2009.

Hill, E.S., Moore-Kochlacs, C., Vasireddi, S.K., Sejnowski, T.J. and Frost, W.N.  Validation of Independent Component Analysis for rapid spike sorting of optical recording data.  J. Neurophysiology, 104:3721-3731, 2010.

Frost, W.N., Wang, J., Brandon, C.J., Moore-Kochlacs, C., Sejnowski, T.J. and Hill, E.S.  Use of fast-responding voltage-sensitive dyes for large-scale recording of neuronal spiking activity with single-cell resolution.  In: Membrane Potential Imaging in the Nervous System: Methods and Applications, Mario Canepari and Dejan Zecevic, Eds., Springer Press, 53-60, 2010.

Frost, W.N.  David W. McCandless (1941-2011): A personal tribute.  Metab. Brain Dis.  26:157, 2011.

Hill, E.S., Vasireddi, S.K., Bruno, A.M., Wang, J. and Frost, W.N.  Variable neuronal participation in stereotypic motor programs.  PloS One, 7(7): 1-11, e40579.  Epub 2012 Jul 16.

Hill, E.S., Bruno, A.M., Vasireddi, S.K. and Frost, W.N.  ICA applied to VSD imaging of invertebrate neuronal networks.  In: Independent Component Analysis for Audio and Biosignal applications.  Ganesh Naik, Ed., InTech.  Chap. 12, pp. 235-246, 2012. 

Lee, A.H., Megalou, E., Wang, J. and Frost, W.N.  Axonal conduction block as a novel mechanism of prepulse inhibition.  J. Neurosci., 32(44): 15262-15270, 2012.

Hill, E.S., Bruno, A.M. and Frost. W.N.  Recent developments in VSD imaging of small neuronal networks.  Learning and Memory.  21 (10): 499-505, 2014.

Bruno, A.M., Frost, W.N. and Humphries, M.D.  Modular deconstruction reveals the dynamical and physical building blocks of a locomotion motor program. Neuron, 86 (1): 304-318, 2015.  (Subject of a preview article published in the same issue: Brownstone, R.M. and Stifani, N.  Unraveling a locomotor network, many neurons at a time.  Neuron, 86 (1): 9-11, 2015.)

Frost, W.N. and Wu, J.-Y.  Voltage-sensitive dye imaging.  In: Basic Electrophysiological Methods,  E. Covey and M. Carter, Eds.  Oxford University Press. New York.  Chap. 8, pp. 169-195, 2015.

Frost, W.N., Brandon, C.J., Bruno, A.M.., Humphries, M.D., Moore-Kochlacs, C., Sejnowski, T.J., Wang, J. and Hill, E.S.  Monitoring spiking activity of many individual neurons in invertebrate ganglia.  Adv Exp Med Biol, 859: 127-145, 2015. 

Frost, W.N.  The swimming sea anemone StomphiaTide Bites (UW Friday Harbor Laboratories online publication), 24:1-3, 2015. 

Hill, E.S., Vasireddi, S.K., Wang, J., Bruno, A.M. and Frost, W.N.  Memory formation in Tritonia via recruitment of variably-committed neurons.  Current Biology, 25(22): 2879-2888, 2015.


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